Amh (anti-mullerian hormone) is also known as mullerian inhibiting substance , and it plays a significant role in male sex differentiation. And helps to judge the fertility potential of women.
It is produced by sertoli cells of the fetal testis .
It causes the regression of the mullerian ducts
ie. It acts against the mullerian ducts , hence the name “ anti mullerian “.
In simple words, if the genetic constitution of the fetus is 46 XY , then the testis in the early stages of fetal development start producing AMH along with other male hormones, which inhibits the development of female genitals.
On the other hand , in female fetus, the Amh levels are so low that the mullerian duct growth is promoted.
After birth both sexes have concentrations of Amh. In males it declines as puberty approaches And In females, the amh levels first peak in prepubertal years ,then return to baseline values.
AMH levels do not vary much throughout the memstrual cycle that is why they are the unique marker of ovarian reserve.
AMH also relates to levels of vit D in the body. As in winters,vit D levels decreases,AMH is also found to be low in this season.
During pregnancy ,when there is prolonged and profound gonadotropins suppression, there is significant suppression of AMH.
Similarly there is a degree of suppression in AMH levels due to administration of combined contraceptive pills induced prolonged and continous suppression of gonadotropins.